Monday, January 27, 2020
Parents Perception In Choosing Private Primary School The elimination of school fees from public primary school under the Governments policy in Cambodia in order to reach the EFA Goal by 2015 has increased student enrollments from year to year. However, the quality of education of public schools has reduced while the number of students who transfer from public to private schools has increased more and more. To obtain a better understanding of the factors influencing parents decision in choosing private primary schools for children, researcher has investigated the perception between two groups of parents, high and low educated parents. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data from 2 high educated parents and 2 from low educated parents. The interviews were conducted with the parents whose children studying Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¹Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¹Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¹in a private primary school in Phnom Penh. Data was analyzed by using an interpretive analysis method. The findings indicated the different factors influencing the parents decision such as quality and standard of education, learning environment, security, safety and services. However, most parents consider about the quality and safety of their children because they dont have enough time to take care their children even their education during the daytime. According to the findings, most parents have a positive perspective on the choice of private schools even some private schools are expensive. They believe that the higher the school fees it set the higher in quality they will be offered. One of the parents; for example, transferred her child from cheaper to higher price in term of school fees and services. The children in wealthier and higher educated family background have a higher possibility of transferring to private schools than children from poorer and lower educated family background. Education plays an important role in socioeconomic development in every country. It can also improve human resources as not all the human abilities which are offered by birth. Education makes people feel confident, aware and active in term of knowledge and skill development (Rehman, Khan, Tariq Tasleem, 2010). It develops human abilities needed for economic and social development. Many years public schools play a very important role in developing the education as well as building human resources. However, in recent years, private schools have grown very fast by providing good quality. No matter the fee in private school is very high, parents are still happy to invest their youngsters in the private sector (Rehman et al., 2010). According to the report of the Education Management Information System (EMIS) of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports 2010-2011, private schools have been growing very fast. Private schools have done its privatization since 1992 under the supervision of MoEYS (MoEYS, 2011). Among 24 provinces and cities, there are only 9 provinces and cities that have sent their report of private schools to the EMIS office (MoEYS, 2011). Until now there are 264 private schools in the whole kingdom, but only 120 schools that provide primary education. Among 120 schools, 71 schools located in Phnom Penh (MoEYS, 2011). Cambodia is one of many developing countries with a recent history of rapid growth within the private education sector. Since Cambodia steps into a free market economy in the early 1990s, education has become a very important key to human resource development. However, while the demand of education begins growing faster and faster, public education is still in poor condition and unresponsive to the growing need and free markets that offer people what they want (Bernal, 2005). Bernal (2005) stated that since competition among public schools has not been introduced, parents are free to choose any schools they want for their children. On the one hand, competition among private schools is very strong, so each school has managed many kinds of strategies in order to attract the parents as well as their children to participate the school. Private school enrollment is not a simple function of parental preferences. The quality of private schools can be a high demand in which parents seek for their childs education (Desai, Dubey, Vanneman Banerji, 2008). Private education is often perceived to be about serving the needs of the high and middle classes, not the poor. Most of parents want to provide the best educational environment for their children. The parents decide to invest their children in form of education depends on number of social, cultural and economic factors (Rehman et al., 2010). Parents usually decide to choose the best quality school for their youngsters when they are dissatisfied with public school. Private schools are mostly more effective than public schools in terms of school environment, qualified teachers, smaller size of classes and parents education. Rehman et al. (2010) found that a great majority of parents seemed dissatisfied with the public school due to various reasons: qualified teachers, good relationship between schools and parents, class sizes and others. Choosing school for children, parents may make themselves feel more confident that children will be taught effectively and treated fairly (Spellings, 2005). Choosing schools carefully is an important way parents can help their children all what he / she can be. School choice is highly related to parents occupational status. The parents with higher occupational status prefer to choose private school rather than public school for their children. The school choice of parents show about their satisfaction with the school they choose (Rehman et al., 2010). Moreover, many parents consider teacher quality the most important factor to guarantee the quality of their children education while the other value school academic reputation and facilities (as cited in Wilkinson, Denniss Machintosh, 2004). According to the research of Wilkinson et al. (2004) stated that some teachers have perceived pressure in the public school system that may lead to the non-quality teaching condition. In contrast, private sector offers incentives, good working environment, and other benefits which encourage teachers to work hard by providing the best quality of education, thats why parents choose private school rather than public school. 1.2 Problem Statement Private education in Cambodia has expanded rapidly in number as well as absorbing more students. Private sector, especially private school, has become one of the potential partners with the government to improve and develop the education sector as well as human resources. The increasing competitions as well as the huge demand of education have led to the rapid expansion of the private sector, which is new in the history of modern education in Cambodia. Because these private education institutions are profit seeking, the majority of them are only to offer courses with high demand and high quality (Desai, Dubey, Vanneman Banerji, 2008). Moreover, the private education in Cambodia raises many questions concerning about future success and quality. On condition that its new existence and concerning among public, the private education keeps increasing students enrollment from year to year. This rising enrolment contributes to the continuous growth of private sector which the priorities of the private institutions are for profit, and depend mostly on students fee. Even the fee of some institutions increases more and more, students parents still choose private school but not the public one. Since the last few decades, public school seems to be less attention from parents in term of service, qualityÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦etc. On the other hand, high income of families is also a key factor that affects the school choice. For instance, some parents who have higher income will send their children to a high-fee school (Wilkinson et al, 2004). Similarly, parents with lower income will send their children to less expensive private school or public school. Moreover, according to the study of Rehman et al. (2010) found that lack of education facilities, unsuitable teaching methods, poor discipline, less attention to the overall development of the children, overcrowded classes, lack of teachers interest and unsuitable educational environment are major reasons that the parents avoid the public schools. They also mentioned that the classes in public school are mostly overcrowded and become very hard for teachers to concentrate on the development of every student. These have aroused my curiosity to explore parents perceptions towards private schools in Cambodia. 1.3 Research objectives The purposes of this research are to identify the common factors as well as the reasons parents decide to choose private school for their children education and also to find out the factors which motivate parents to choose a particular school to educate their children. Researcher wants to explore the critical factors influencing parents decision to pursue their children study in the private sector and in choosing a particular private education institution. Another purpose for this research is to identify the different perception between parents who are in the city and suburb area. It also assesses how they view the quality of private schools based on their own experience. 1.4 Research Questions This study is conducted purposively to answer the following two research questions: What are the factors influencing parents decision to choose private primary school for their children? What are the different perceptions between high and low educated parents in choosing the schools for their children? 1.5 Significance of the Study This research is attempted to contribute to the discussion of critical factors that affect parents decision in choosing a private school as well as their perceptions of quality of private sector. It also gives an understanding of parents experiences of satisfaction and dissatisfaction in private and public education which would be aware of students need and the view of customers. So those private sectors may respond by designing suitable courses, programs, and service to meet students needs. The findings of this research will also allow public schools to be better informed as well as aware of new roles of private education sector as seen by parents perceptions. This may allow public education sector to readily reorganize some dissatisfaction factors by providing an education with higher quality. It would also contribute to the future growth, development and significance of private education sector in Cambodia. Definition of key terms This research will include 3 key terms that are particularly used to refer only in this study, but not in general. Private primary school is referred to non-government school which is run by private sector. However, this private primary school, from grade 1 to 6, is under the supervision of the Ministry of Education Youth and Sports. High educated parents mentioned in this research are referred to the ones who have the Bachelor Degree or higher. And they are referred to the ones who work as government officers, NGOs staff and company staff (As higher position). Low educated parents which mentioned in this paper are focused on the parents who have no Bachelor Degree or equivalent certificates. These parents may not work as government officers, NGOs staff or company staff, but they just sell things at the market or have a small business. 1.7 Proposed chapter outline of research paper This research contains five chapters. Chapter one gives detail background of the previous studies related to the topic. It also provides detail information of research problem, research objectives, research questions, then significance of study, and definition of key term. In chapter two, there will be literature review which will discuss on previous studies and how they related to this study. Then in chapter three, there will be methodology covering research design of qualitative, tools/instruments for data collection, sample size and sampling method, data collecting procedures, data analysis, ethical consideration, and strengths and limitation of the method. Findings and discussion will be presented in chapter four giving results of the research and together with some problems or solutions to be discussed. The last chapter is conclusion and recommendation and must be followed by reference list giving detail about the sources which are used in this research. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Definition of Quality in Education Quality in education should involve learners, content, processes, environments, and outcomes (UNICEF, 2000). Learners are healthy, ready to participate and learn, and supported by their communities and families. Contents include literacy, numeracy, and especially life skills. Environments are referred to healthy, protective, safe, and provide appropriate resources and facilities to students in their learning processes. Outcomes are linked to national goals for education and positive participation in society in terms of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. OECD (2012) has combined the quality with equity which means that if social and personal circumstance such as ethnic origin, family background or gender, are able to access the educational fairness, the quality of education will increase higher and higher. 2.2 Comparison between Public and Private Schools Private schools have greater demand than public schools. Nowadays the idea that private education is always better than public education has become a common idea which is linked to discipline, level of attainment and individual attention (Bernal, 2005). This study was to evaluate parents school choice and this may produce exclusion of society and inequality. Particular populations, economically disadvantaged groups, immigrants and ethnic minorities are considered the same schools (Bernal, 2005). In contrast, research argued that an open market system is not important in order to ensure the social class reproduction. However, parents are free to choose the school for the childrens education. Then family income and number of children attending the same school has increased dramatically. Private schools are free to plan the model of what they prefer. The competition among private schools is very strong in all kinds of commercial and marketing strategies. There are five characteristics o f the market system in Spain: free choice of school, school sells themselves to parents, public financing to both form of provision, diversity, control and management. The tough competition between schools and the outcomes are similar (Bernal, 2005). The upper and middle classes go to private schools, while economically disadvantaged groups, ethnic minorities and immigrants go to the public school. Children who are in private school have higher reading and arithmetic skills than those in public schools (Desai et al., 2008). This paper explores the relationship by examining different economic status in the private and public schools; moreover, it indicates that while children from lower economic status are more likely to be physically punished in the public schools than their peers who choose private schools. The relationship between economic status and physical punishment is negligible in private schools. There are private schools for the poor and they are most likely to have the big effect on enrollment (Baird, 2009). Parents select private schools because they think that the schools will provide better education in term of quality and opportunities in the future for their children than the state schools. Baird (2009) also found that there is no relationship between a particular areas wealth and the enrollment in private schools. Private education should be generalized through out the world, not just in India especially for the poor. The less satisfied citizens are with the government schools; in contrast, the rich choose private schools for their children education. The government schools or state schools should provide better education in term of quality, particularly for the poor (Baird, 2009). Choosing private school is not the decision of parents alone, but it has to be shared by their children in this decision making. However, Bertola, Checchi, Oppedisano (2007) mention that expensive private school is supposed to be better than free public school in terms of quality and safety because parents will send their children to other schools if they dont offer better service. Student quality is likely very different in terms of across academic and vocational secondary school tracks (Bertola et al., 2007). Parents are positively associated with private schooling and may also appreciate the longer hours and flexibility of private schools schedules. Rational choice of theory suggests that parents are utility maximizes who can make their own decisions from clear value of preferences, that they can demand effective actions from local schools and teachers, and that they are able to be relied upon to pursue the best interest of the children (Bosetti, 2004). This presents a different perspective and argues that parents invest a mixture of choice when selecting schools. Bertola et al., (2007) argue that a school ing systems organization may consider that private school enrollment leads to worse subsequent activities in the future education or in the labor market. If students are different not only their families ability to pay but also their own ability to take advantage of their talent, theory predicts that private schools attract students badly when publicly funded schools are better suited to force progress not only their families ability to pay but also their own ability to take advantage of their talent. 2.3 School Fee affects on School choice Coulson (2009) finds that private school families are basically different from public school families because they choose the schools through the school fee. Some parents believe that the higher school fee they set the higher quality of education they will offer. The result of this research also provides clearer understanding about the expectations, ideals and experiences of parents influence school choice. Most of parents want to educate their children with the best quality of education environment. They want to invest their children depend on a number of cultural, economic and social factors (Rehman et al., 2010). In Pakistan, education is offered by both private and public sectors. Studying in public schools is free of charge while parents have to pay in private schools. The price in private school is higher; however, parents still send their children to private school because they hope that their children will receive better education. Since the last three decades, private sector has been considered as an important resource of education in Pakistan. Then the factors that motivate parents decisions about private sector are yet to be explored. Family size, education level of parents, income of parents, school performance and staff qualifications are considered as the major factors that affect parents choice in choosing private school (Desai et al., 2008; Rehman et al., 2010). This study has shown that about 88.5% were the view these schools have a progressive mode of education while 86% parents avoided public schools due to unsuitable educational environment. Even the school fees are high or low, there is no different between private and public schools (CEP, 2007). Holme (2002) suggests that poor families should be provided with the same quality of educational choices that the wealthier have. It is inequity that private schools seem to be established for the rich not the poor. 2.4 School choice influences on Students Achievement Choosing a school has direct effects on children development as well as childrens educational achievement, literacy, numeracy and scientific knowledge (Sylva, 1994). Moreover, formal educational qualifications are the main key for children to enter higher education or training and also employment. The results show that excellent attendance, cognitively oriented pre-school programs was associated with later school competence. Pre-school graduates were more likely than the control group to provide achievement-related answers to the invitation. Findings also suggest that early education changed the family achievement orientation. Most mothers whose children attended pre-school expected more from their children. The children themselves also show more pride in their achievement. Pupil cognitions, motivations and school performance also effect pupils development. Academic self-concept has an independent impact on children academic attainment and parental education (Sylva, 1994; Gibbons et al., 2009). A productive school normally produces high achievement for students for their school fee on investing with schools (Hoxby, 2003). If a school could raise students achievement while spending the same as the others, it would be expected to draw the students away from those schools. Low-productivity producers will be driven out by high-productivity producers. There are many different types of schools: for profit, for non-profit private schools, regular public schools, and charter schools (Hoxby, 2003). Moreover, it is slightly different from others because the others about the choices parents make for their children while this literature is about the influences of the school. Children developments such as pre-school education, primary school on childrens attainment, attitudes and behavior, pupil cognitions, motivations, school performance, social competence and attainment are likely to be concerned by most parents (Sylva, 1994). Gibbons and Silva (2009) argued that parents choose schools for children according to their high performance. Previous research suggested that school quality is not only one dimension about which children and parents concern, other school factors like pupil happiness and enjoyment of their learning environment are also considered. These lead the researchers consider about parents perceptions of school choice based on academic standards and related with the children wellbeing. Some researcher (Gibbons et al., 2009; Sylva, 1994; Coulson, 2009) found that atti tudes and experiences, among pupils and their parents linked to standard test score based measures of academic performance, and whether parents perception of school quality linked to their childrens happiness and enjoyment of school. Gibbons et al. (2009) assumed that parents choose schools for children according to their high performance. They suggest that school quality is not only one dimension about which children and parents concern, other school factors like pupil happiness and enjoyment of their learning environment are also considered. This need to be considered about parents perceptions of school choice based on academic standards and related with the children wellbeing. Bernal (2005) Baird (2009) also agreed that parents select private schools because they think that the schools will provide better education in term of quality and opportunities in the future for their children than the state schools. There is no relationship between a particular areas wealth and the enrol lment in private schools. Private education is assumed to be concerned only with serving the high or middle class, not the poor (Trooley et al., n.d; Baird, 2009). Children who were in the private unaided schools get higher score than government school students. Moreover, children in unrecognized private schools achieve higher marks in mathematics than government students, 83% higher in Hindi and 246% higher in English. Scores in the recognized private schools were higher. Researchers also found that children in unaided private schools were more satisfied than the government schools. Unrecognized private schools are assumed to be educationally inadequate. This assumption is untrue because there are many unrecognized private schools achieved universal basic education, education for all. Children in private unaided schools get higher achievement than government schools. Private unaided schools cost less than government schools; moreover, teaching commitment is higher in private unaided than the government schoo ls. However, these findings mean that nothing could be improved in the private sector for serving the poor (Trooley et al., n.d). According to the United Nation Millennium Development Goal of education for all (EFA), education should be provided equally, even the poor. Then; however, private schools still take part in contributing the knowledge, not only public schools, for all children equally with quality of education. 2.5 Transferring from Public Schools The quality of education in public schools has reduced and the number of students who transfer from public to private schools has increased according to suggestion make by some experts (Nishimura, M. Yamano, T., 2008). As results, researchers have found that the school quality has a positive impact on the choice of private schools. They found not only transfers from public to private schools but also between public schools. Children who are in wealthy households have a higher probability of transferring to private schools than children who are in poorer households. Nishimura et al., (2009) Trooley et al., (n.d) have shown that to maintain the quality of education is an urgent policy agenda for Nation Millennium Development Goal of education for all that have adopted free primary education policies to enhance the education system equally. There is a positive impact on the choice of private schools. So it means that private education play very important role in providing good quality of education, even for the poor. 2.6 Choosing School through where they live Even some public schools are as high in quality as or higher than that of private schools, parents still send their children to private schools (Figlio, 1997). Parents might find a well disciplined for their children, or might satisfy with a higher probability that their children can participate in extracurricular activities substantively. Figlio (1997) finds that parents might wish for their children to perform with a right peer group. Parents choose private schools for their curricula and academic emphasizes, discipline, and safety. Checchi et al. (2004) agrees that private schools allow parents to choose the quality of education and the amount of price that they believe appreciate and satisfy. Beside, this literature also indicates that resource indicators, out come indicators, and subjective assessments are the factors in which we can measure as quality of schools. There are many ways in which parents are involved in childrens education. And one of the most important ways is through choosing the best school for children to attend (Goldring, et al., 2006). Most of parents choose a school according to where they live. Private schools are available more and more for parents because of the increasing availability of leaflets or vouchers that are targeted to low-income families. Some researchers may compare the choice of the parents between public and private schools. Goldring et al. (2006) examine how parents make school choices and the dynamics of the choice progress with an emphasis of public schools. Then he also indicates that parents who participate in school choosing have five different ways: parental involvement, socials networks, educational priorities, demographics, and satisfaction with previous school. Parents who choose the schools also tend to be more involvement in childrens education. School quality can be related to its characterist ics such as: school demographics, school location, school atmosphere, and academic performance (Goldring, et al., 2006). Parents really concern about their childrens safety when it comes to how they travel to or from school (Faulkner et al., 2010 Figlio, 1997). Parents always look after children so they have to find the best ways for them to send them to school safely. However, some parents may allow their children travel to school independently (Faulkner et al., 2010). In contrast, children can be allowed to walk according to the street or the way to school is safe for them. And whether how far is the house from school. But others think that parents dont care how far it is if school provides the best quality of education. 2.7 Choice depending on familys background According to the study by CEP (2007) finds that key family backgrounds were considered as the prior factor that forces students or parents to choose public or private schools. Students who attend private schools receive no better on achievement tests than those who choose public schools in reading, Math, history, and science. Students who had attended any type of private school ended up with no more jobs satisfaction that those who choose traditional public school. However, students achievement depends on school they choose. If students attend private school with higher school fee, test scores will be higher (Alderman, Orazem, Paterno, 2001; Holme, 2002). Transferring from government schools to private schools is increasing because of the quality and higher achievement test scores. The strong demand for private schools is depended on the evidence of greater language achievement and mathematics in private schools than in public schools (Alderman et al., 2001). Parents education signi ficantly; however, reduces no-schooling option. When parents are educated well, they will concern more about their childrens education. Then private school is the first choice for their children even the school fee is high or really high, what they want is quality of education. The ability of high-income parents will allow their children to access to high-quality school by moving to a good school area. Parents concern about student discipline based on students racial and class background, particularly violence at school. Holme (2002) finds that according to the income parents earn, they can send their children to the best private or public school to ensure that children will get the best quality of education. The researcher has also found that high-status schools tend to attract more well-qualified teachers. That can result in providing students a challenging curriculum. Parents are sensitive about the location of schools, and prefer school with positive atmosphere as reflected in school discipline, class size, and school safety. Moreover, parents believe that private schools offer better education, additional resources, better policies and practices, and an environment more deductive to learning (OECD, 2012). Parents are well-informed about school curricul um and others important factors as mention above. Parents education and use of individual tutoring lessons also raise the possibility of private school enrollment. Parental involvement and share of students in private display no correlation with college enrolment. Bertola et al. (2007) suggest that as long as peer effects are relevant, the students from lower quality private school imply a similarly low quality of the education offered by this segment of the market. 2.8 Conceptual Framework There are several reasons that influent parents decision in choosing a private primary school. The study journals, articles, and reports from the above literatures provide different perspectives as well as reasons influencing parents decision in choosing a private school such as school fees, students achievement, safety, and family background. Choosing a school has direct effects on children development as well as childrens educational achievement, literacy, numeracy and scientific knowledge (Sylva, 1994). Children can achieve higher test scores depends on their abilities, together with the schools they choose. However, the best school will provide the best quality of education. Pupils motiv
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Reaction: Contentment. This is one thing that the two lead characters in the movie do not contain over themselves. They both made sacrifices just to be able to have the title of the one who has the greatest magic trick. They sacrificed their friendship, their families, even their lives. Before they started their rivalry, they both have good relationship with each other, good family, a good life. But what happened after they tried to uncover each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s secret? Because of greed and personal motive, they both lost everything. The story looked like a tragedy, horror, and dramatic movie for me. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s like an exaggerated version of how we live our lives, sometimes. Even though we donÃ¢â¬â¢t admit, but sometimes, there is some part of us that want to be on top of someone because we donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel satisfied and we canÃ¢â¬â¢t accept the fact that there is someone better than us. Here in the story, the secret is the symbol of what we want to get from someone. And what the two characters did in the story are examples of our actions in real life. One makes the attack and the other one makes the defense. Robert, who was the one making the offense, wanted to know AlfredÃ¢â¬â¢s secret, not just because he did it for revenge, but also because he wanted to own the prestige that Alfred had. He did everything that would put Alfred down. On the other hand, Alfred was the one making the defense. He sacrificed everything that he had in order for him to get a hold of his fame. In the end, both of them didnÃ¢â¬â¢t make it to their goal. Instead, they became losers of their own games. The characters are the epitome of human greed. Greed that we cannot pull out of our being human. It seems impossible for a human to be able to escape this kind of bad attitude. But as we grow older, as we mature, we learn how to build up goodness in ourselves because we realize the true meaning of life. We realize that there are things that we cannot achieve, obtain and maintain. Even our own life is not permanent. Nothing is permanent in this world except our soul. Now, as we think of this, we will be able to get theÃ idea that the most important things in this world cannot be seen. But it can be felt. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re fortunate that God has provided us the greatest give anyone could ever get. And the best way to give back to our Father, I think, is to be grateful enough, and learn how to appreciate the things that we have, nothing less.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Have you ever imagined not having a coach for your sports team? Or why your coach is so successful? Even though they are very demanding, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re essential for any teamÃ¢â¬â¢s success. Ã¢â¬Å"I demand a lot out of my players, but we have fun and I give them room to learn and make mistakes,Ã¢â¬ said Coach Mike Bates. They provide structure and are the heart and souls of each team. Coaches have to love the game. The team reflects the coach, if heÃ¢â¬â¢s successful so will you be. The coach needs to be disciplined and teach the fundamentals of the game. They should instill moral values into the team. Basic basketball will make the team better. Basic basketball includes ball handling, proper form, offense, and etc. It may seem boring and stupid but it really makes you a better team and player. Players want a coach who will teach them the game. If the coach is a stickler for defense, your team can beat anyone. The fundamentals of defense can make a good team great and lower tier teams competitive. The defense will lead to offense and things will come easier for your team. Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve mastered the basics the goals that have been set for the team will seem reachable and easier. The confidence of the team will sky rocket and results will follow. Ã¢â¬Å"I teach the kids every aspect of the game and the basics that will make them successful,Ã¢â¬ said Coach Mike. Your coach needs to be dedicated and love the game. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m a gym rat, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll do anything to get into the gym and help the girls,Ã¢â¬ continued Coach Mike. You need to make touch decisions and sacrifices to be successful. Nothing comes easily especially in this profession. You have to outwork your opposition and be prepared. Being in the gym and loving the game gives you many advantages over other coaches. Being around the game teaches you more and makes you aware of every situation. Yelling isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the only way to motivate players. There are many other ways to do so. Sometimes yelling may do more harm than good and hurt the teams psyche. Players will start to resent the coach and start to distance themselves. Once the morale and confidence is broken down the team will start to suffer the consequences. There are certain times when yelling is appropriate but it shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be used all the time and coaches should never single players out in front of the entire team. The coach should yell for a purpose, but also bring your confidence up at the same time and encourage you to do better. There shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be false hope put into playerÃ¢â¬â¢s heads because of the coachÃ¢â¬â¢s ego. Players would start to lose respect for him. They really listen to what the coaches have to tell them and take it to heart. It really means a lot to them what you tell them. One of the reasons John Wooden was successful as a basketball coach was because he was the best teacher at the sport and taught his players life skills. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t win ten national championships because he had talent. He won because he taught fundamentals and basic basketball. He instilled in his players that fundamentals is the key to success. To this day his players still use what he taught them and take that with them as they move on with their lives. He was a coach and a father to the players. He always compared how life was like basketball and the players understood what he meant. John Wooden made the Pyramid of Success. The Pyramid of Success consists of twenty-five behaviors that Wooden felt you needed to be successful in not only basketball, but also in life. The top two behaviors are faith and patience. He followed those behaviors and taught his players those behaviors until his dying days. Phil Jackson is also another great coach. He is unique just like John Wooden. They never felt the need to yell. Jackson is the Zen Master and isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a yeller. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s unique because unlike most coaches he trusts his team and lets them play instead of calling timeouts when his team gets into ruts. Most coaches would be infuriated and quickly call a timeout but not him. He sits back and lets them play through difficult periods. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t coach every player the same and understands the needs of what each player needs to succeed. Jackson knows his players and all their strengths and weaknesses. Another wonderful thing is he taught the two best players the game has ever had to offer: Michael Jordan and Kobe Bryant, that playing within the concept of the team is the only way to win. An excellent leader leads to an excellent coach. With the confidence and swagger that they have to offer it rubs off on the team. The team needs someone to follow and look up to. Players have to respect the coach. Respect is a major aspect of the game. The team should want to live and die by the coach. Conducting a great practice is a great aspect of any coach. Practice should be conducted with the needs of the team and show progress throughout the year. It is a way for coaches to see what you can bring to the team. Practice makes perfect and for every coach they live and die by that saying. All in all the coach is the catalyst to the team. They are everything to the team and the team thrives off their energy. The personality of the team reflects the coach. Coaches that drill the basics and fundamentals into the team are very successful. The team will succeed as a whole and improve as the season moves along.
Thursday, January 2, 2020
Taylor Anderson Acc. Academic Literacy Mr. Dakin 17 November 2014 Racial Profiling by Police Ever since the late 1970 s profiling was associated with a method of spotting and stopping drug traffickers. The profiling provided not only a quick way to see evidence of concealment in the vehicle, but included age and race characteristics of possible drivers (Data Collection Resource Center). The controversy is over whether or not there are a disproportionate number of blacks and Hispanics involved with law enforcement that reflects police racism or is it merely the outcome of disproportionate minority crime (MacDonald). MacDonald reported the high rates of minority stops and arrests do not accurately reveal racism was the cause. In the pastÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦With this information an officer pulls over a speeding Honda accord that also happens to have a black driver. The officer exercises awareness in looking for any signs of drugs while issuing the traffic ticket (Mac Donald). Is there hard evidence that profiling exists? According to a new study, black drivers on the New Jersey Turnpike are twice as likely to speed as white drivers, and are even more dominant among drivers breaking 90 miles per hour. With that we can see that racial profiling can be a myth (MacDonald). Granted, highway stops should almost always be color-blind, but when a police officer has many clues to use, race may be among them (MacDonald). From the 1980 s to 1990 s complaints were filed by African Americans that state troopers were regularly stopping and searching them (Harris). Dr. John Lamberth of Temple University made an analysis of state police stops, citations, and arrests made in comparison with the black population. His statistical data sorely revealed that there was in fact a vast disparity in the number of blacks arrested, as 73.2 percent. With only 13.5 percent of the cars on the New Jersey turnpike having a black occupant, concluding that the race of the occupants and/or drivers of the cars is a decisive factor or a factor with great explanatory power.(Harris). Another analysis was done in the state of Maryland
Wednesday, December 25, 2019
The Basics of 2017 Ap English Literature Exam Essay Samples As it happens, you will also see more in-depth questions asking you to determine nuanced particulars. Each question is accompanied by a comprehensive explanation, so that in the event that you miss one, you can find out where you went wrong and not make the identical mistake again later on. In the event you have any extra questions we are more than delighted to hear from you. All the questions within this section have equal price. Again, in the instance of a quick poem, the whole text is going to be included. The essays test your writing ability in many different modes and for a range of uses. The second part of the test is known as the free-response section. Within the next portion of the multiple-choice section, you will display your capability to analyze text. Where to Find 2017 Ap English Literature Exam Essay Samples Multiple choice was not too bad. If you are not sure of an answer, eliminate as many obvio usly wrong choices as possible, prior to making your selection. If you truly feel just like you still need more help or you're not sure that you may do it all on your own, look no more. If you feel as if you need more help or you aren't certain that you can do it by yourself, look no more. What You Don't Know About 2017 Ap English Literature Exam Essay Samples Just place your order for virtually any kind of essay, and it's going to be done at the maximal level. However, not one of these sources are designed especially to offer preparation for a CLEP exam. Whenever you do take practice tests, it can be useful to find somebody else to aid grade your free-response essays dependent on the rubric. In addition, writing is an essential part of the course and exam. Within this post, we will have a look at the format and content of the exam in addition to frequently asked questions. Some students think about the absolutely free response section being the hardest portion of the whole English exam. When reading, be careful to go slowly and reread important or intricate sections. On-line study courses are available too. As soon as you have your resources assembled, you may not be sure how to use them. Alternately, there are lots of on-line study resources out there. Additionally, there are several paid resources that provide unofficial practice questions. You don't have to have an AP English class in order to take a seat for the AP English Language test. Instead, you wish to analyze the essay and ensure that your claim is supported. That is the reason why you should learn to deal with AP English essay prompts. Notes along the webpage marginscan be extremely beneficial. You'll be requested to read an excerpt from a text on the mandatory reading list (or the entire work in the instance of a brief poem) and analyze the way the text represents the features of a specific genre. The College Board does not have any control over their content and cannot vouch for accuracy. So, students should guess if they don't know an answer on the multiple-choice part of the exam. The AP English Language and Composition Exam is utilized by colleges to rate your capacity to do college-level work. If you would like to track your scores, you can earn a completely free account with Varsity Tutors, but it's not essential in order to access the quizzes. You should begin early before the exam to create a fantastic improvement. You'll also discover which tests are high-quality and ways to best utilize different practice exams to satisfy your studying needs. The entire practice tests supply the advantage of assisting you to pare off your AP English Literature and Composition review by focusing your study time on the topics you would like to review. You can also locate practice tests in lots of the official study guides, and some even incorporate a diagnostic test to serve as your initial assessment.
Tuesday, December 17, 2019
From the origin of the United States, immigration has been crucial for the economic advancement and expansion of the nation. The US truly is a melting pot of many cultures and ideas, and it has benefited greatly from diversity. However, with a much-reduced demand for unskilled or low-skilled workers, US policy must adapt so that it can better maximize the net economic benefits of immigration. While this probably does not include a universal drop in the number of legal immigrants, it would include the screening of applicants in such a way that preference is given to more economically beneficial candidates. It would also include making families totally responsible for their elderly relatives who migrate to the US, eliminating theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦These companies include Microsoft, Intel, Hewlett-Packard, Texas Instruments, National Semiconductor, among others. Despite this, current immigration policy is slanted more towards groups that do poorly than it is towards those t hat are successful. In recent years, the United States is taking in more and more less skilled, legal immigrants, causing a reduction in some benefits immigrants bring with them, including tax revenues and capital externalities. This policy has reduced the number of qualified applicants for many firms, especially those in the technology area. They have greatly benefited from the H-1B visa program, and further expansion of this program at the expense of less-skilled immigrants would be very beneficial. In 2014 almost 738,000 non-citizens received Supplemental Security Income, SSI, a welfare program, up from 128,000 in 2002; a 580% increase in just twelve years. Population increase can explain some of the growth, but not nearly all of it. The largest contributor to the jump is the elderly sub-group of immigrants. In the current United States immigration policy, many elderly immigrants are allowed into the country if they have family here that will sponsor them. The law requires the family to support their elderly relatives for a period of three to five years. After that time, the elderly immigrants are entitled to US welfare programs. In contrast, it hasShow MoreRelatedEconomics And Immigration : The Economics Of U.s. Immigration Policy964 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEconomics and Immigration Immigration is a topic on everyone s minds these days. With presidential candidates vying for votes in debates and political campaigns, immigration has been talked about quite a bit. But what is truly known about immigration? Since it is such a divisive issue, it is hard to know what is true and what isnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Unfortunately, the information most readily available to us comes in the form of opinionated articles and biased speeches by presidential candidates. Because the informationRead MoreThe Economic Theory Of Immigration Essay1931 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageshave experienced in their previous countries. The neoclassical economic theory of immigration explains why it is that immigrants are so willing to pick up their lives in their old country and start from scratch in the United States. To begin with, the American population has become more educated and as a result the demand for lower skilled workers has been steadily increasing. Low skilled workers are in abundance throughout the immigration population; in 2010 28.9% of immigrants had less than a highRead MoreThe Economic Impact Of Illegal Immigration1603 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAbstract This paper examines the economic impact of illegal immigration in the United States. This country was built with the help of millions of legally admitted immigrants, however today illegal immigration is a controversial topic. Despite the illegal status, millions of men and women work and contribute to local, state and national economies. An accepted idea is that most of the illegal immigrants cross the Mexico-US border, therefore most of the illegal immigrants should be Mexicans or fromRead MoreThe Economic Impact Of Illegal Immigration1520 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessection-04 November 19, 2014 Illegal immigration Economic impact of illegal immigration The idea of illegal immigrants has been tarnished by the media. The first thought that pops in to our minds when the topic of illegal immigrants has been brought up is the fact that these people take all the jobs and depress the economy of a country. They have always carried with them a negative connotation, especially in countries like America. 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It is estimated that there are 12 million undocumented immigrants in the United States today, and their impact on the economy can be perceived as positive as well as negative. The overall effect is unclear, and this essay will present both sides of the debate. Many economic factors have been influenced by an increasing number of immigrants that have entered our country. Population growth has hadRead MoreEconomic Immigration: the Case of Spain4636 Words Ã |Ã 19 Pages[pic] Economic immigration: the case of Spain Why did I choose this topic? I. Introduction 1. The term immigration 1.1 The term immigration and the general theories behind it 1.2. Economic migrant 2. Global immigration 3. Immigration in Europe 1. Immigration within Europe 2. Immigration from outside of Europe II. The case of Spain 1. Immigration laws and policies in Spain 2. Main countries from where people emigrate to Spain Read MoreEconomic Impact of Immigration Essay1789 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"The conclusion of most research on the subject is that immigration provides net economic benefits to domestic residents. In other words, immigration provides net benefits. In addition findings such as the following found in the report done by the Center for Continuing Study of the California Economy (2004), points to positive indicators from immigration, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦. domestic migration to California has been positive except during the economic recession in the early 1990s. While it is possible that individualRead MoreEuropean Immigration Policies And The Economic Crisis1225 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages European Immigration Policies and the Economic Crisis The Eurozone economic crisis began at the end of 2009. Essentially, the failure of the Euro caused huge problems in southern European countries (such as Spain, Portugal, Greece, and Italy). After the introduction of the Euro, these countries suddenly had the credit to borrow money like they hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t had before. They extravagantly increased spending with this borrowed money, which at first boosted the economy but eventually led to massive debtsRead MoreThe Political And Economic Fight Over Immigration932 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Political and Economic Fight over Immigration Today in the United States, the issue of immigration has become very sensitive and it is making politicians both at the state and national levels very nervous. Immigration has become very important in American political debates both in the Republican and Democratic parties as it defines the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s foundation, economy, military strength, state and federal relationship, and success as the world greatest supper power. Leaders from the two political
Monday, December 9, 2019
Question: Discuss About The Nursing Practice Children An Young People? Answer: Introducation The child who was engaged for the present analysis was a 4-year-old girl. Her name is not mentioned due to confidentiality issues. She extended cooperation for the activity to be carried out with success. The child was brought into the ED a number of times and therefore was acquainted with the environment of the hospital. Though she had not been hospitalised in the setting, her frequent visits to the hospital were adequate for her to express her visualisations of a hospital drawing. The drawing was a valuable one as it focused on the reflection of the child pertaining to a hospital environment. Though the drawing is not exact to what a norma hospital setting would actually look like, the drawing mentions some key aspects involved with such a setting. As per the child, she had drawn the picture in which she mentions to make a bed with many wheels that carry a patient. The patient, in this case, has a fractured leg. The physician is seen to be coming into the room from the door. Hospitalization, or frequent visits to the hospital has been indicated to be a stressful experience for children of all age groups. The degree of anxiety that child bears have been well studied in the literature. Advanced nursing practice outlines a wide range of strategies based on recreational activities to enhance the quality of patient stay at the hospital (Fraser et al. 2017). According to Hockenberry, Wilson and Rodgers (2016) play can be an integral part of the care provided by a nurse to the child. One significant recreation activity is drawing that has been proved to be helpful for children to come out of their anxiety or negative feelings. In the present case, the child can be helped in overcoming her fears and anxiety related to stay at hospital through drawing. Drawing can enable the child to be not restricted to the physical barriers of the hospital. Encouraging her to draw her perceptions about the hospital and motivating her to explain what her feelings her can help in resolving any misunderstandings she might have pertaining to the hospital. Therapeutic play, in the from of drawing might enable her to learn more about how hospitals function in a precise and certain manner. This would eventually help her in combating challenges she is facing on the emotional front (Hughe and Lyte 2015). As opined by Rindstedt (2013) unstructured play, such as drawing, as undertaken by a child admitted to the healthcare unit, or visiting the care unit, can enable her to control ideas, relationships nd events. Drawing is a means of expressing ones self and own ideas through which communication can be done with the outer world. In addition, drawing can also be perceived as a distraction method. One can be made to be distracted from illness and pain through such process. Research indicates that distraction is a significant tool within a clinical setting whereby patients get relief from pain. Normalisation of hospital experience can be achieved from the perspective of the patient if she is engaged in drawing. For increasing the range of motion in a child who is of school-going age and is visiting the hospital due to fracture, drawing can serve as a means of eliminating chances of boredom. The impact of hospitalisation on children has been well studied in literature as this has wide implications for nursing practice within a clinical setting. According to Hockenberry, Wilson and Rodgers (2016), a child being admitted to the hospital undergoes a series of emotional changes that directly and indirectly influence the outcomes of medical and nonmedical interventions. Firstly, a child is deeply concerned about being separated from his parents. Separation from parents is perceived as fear, thinking it to b a rejection from the parents side. Anxiety and apprehension are extreme since the child has very less knowledge of the consequences of being admitted to the hospital. Wilson and Hockenberry (2014) in this regard state that a constant comparison is made by the child with other children of own age wherein differences are drawn out in favour of other. This implies that a child starts thinking himself to be different from others as with fewer capabilities and sound physical he alth. Emotional outbursts are common for children who are admitted to hospitals. Crying and nagging, with the onset of anger and misbehaviour are common for children of all ages. These outbreaks are due to distress and feelings of loneliness, as a child is not able to cope up with the absence of his family members (Hopia et al. 2005). Children show variation in capacities regarding coping up with the stress of being admitted to the hospital. A major section of this population suffers from emotional disturbances whose degree varies from person to person. Repeated or prolonged hospitalisation enhances the risks of the same. The separation from parents causes the child to be emotionally upset. For children between six months and four years, the vulnerability is more. Human development is starting from birth till death is a long process divided into different stages each with a set of salient features. At every stage, a person needs to be in a certain state of personal evolution. As physical changes drive the main process of development, the cognitive abilities help in the advancement of the brains development with increasing age. Psychosocial development is related to how a person adjusts to the society and shape the self-identity and relationships with others (Ball, Bindler and Cowen 2013). In the present case, the child is of four years age and an analysis of the cognitive and psychological theory of this age group would be beneficial in this regard. According to Jean Piagets Stage Theory of Cognitive Development, there are four distinct stages of development in children; sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete, and formal. A child of age four years belongs to the preoperational stage (age 2-4 years). At this stage, the child has not yet developed the capability to conceptualise is an subtract manner and therefore in need of tangible physical situations. A child at this stage can classify objects in a simple manner, especially by pointing out significant features (Barrouillet 2015). In the present case, the child has been able to classify the objects she had witnessed at the hospital such as the bed, its wheels, the door and the subject of a physician. According to the authors, preoperational stage enables a child to engage in play and use preoperatory thoughts. A chid is better able to represent the objects through drawings and scribbles. The mental reasoning is highly developed in this stage though performing operations is still a challenge. According to Erik Eriksons Theory of Psychosocial Development, there are eight stages through which an individual passes starting from birth till death. At each stage, the individual is expected to demonstrate a set of skills that are to be mastered at before moving on the next stage. as per the theory, child of age four years is at the second stage of lifespan, marked as Will. At this stage, the child is in a dilemma to show his autonomy or to remain in doubt and shame. As the child is now able to gain control over the motor abilities, he is no wanting to explore the surrounding. Children explore the world with much interest and show talent in constantly learning about what is there in the environment (Frye 2014). In the present case, the chid is seen to explore the world around her, observe the surrounding and make a note of everything learnt. The child had developed the ability to note down details of what is there in the surrounding as he had mentioned that the bed on which the p atient was lying had many wheels and that the patient had suffered a fractured leg. Hospitalisation due to illness or other complications is stressful for both the child her family alike (van der Geest et al. 2014). Having own child admitted at the healthcare setting is quite stressful for the parent who is prone to suffer depression, stress and anxiety while the child is at the hospital. Stress in this regard is defined as the non-specific response provided by the body towards an environmental factor that is negative. The reaction coming up against the stress is at times a non-specific response that is mediated through an emotional response on an individual basis. Evidence suggests that stress experienced by parents have a profound impact on the health of the child along with the behavioural outcomes. If a parent is strong enough to combat the challenges coming in with the admission of the child, the child is better able to cope up with the illness he is suffering from. Different psychosocial mediators act as valuable determinants of stress across populations. Pare nts might start doubting the efficiency of the healthcare organisation if there is poor satisfaction related to service delivery, unfriendly staff and unfamiliarity with the policies and regulations of the setting. Research points out the different variables that exert a deep influence on the children and eventually on the families. These encompass the previous medical experience of the family, the development status of the child, the child-parent interaction, the illness severity and the coping style considered by the child. Individual factors, like the intellectual ability and temperament, contribute to the style of addressing the stress and demonstrating coping style (Ball and Bindler 2008). Nurses are to pay an important role in caring for the child and supporting the family while the child is at the hospital. Paediatric care integrates within itself elements of love, affection, support, motivation, respect, encouragement and empathy. Nurses are to apply strategies for supporting the encouraging the child as well as the family at the time of hospitalisation (Wilson and Hockenberry 2014). For addressing the needs of the child, the first measure that the nurse must take is to help in maintaining calmness. It is the duty of the nurse to provide a safe and comfortable environment to the child within which the patient is calm and is not stressed out or tense. The child is to be talked through the stay at the hospital so that there is no feeling of loneliness and rejection. The rationale behind this action is that if a child is stressed or tensed, recovery is slow (Ball and Bindler 2008). The nurse might engage the child in a creative activity as this acts as an anti-anxiety agent. Research indicates that activities such as the playing of music elicit different emotional and physical responses. Employing distractions help in taking the mind of the child off certain concerns by instilling a sense of keenness to know the unknown(Khin Hla et al. 2014). The nurse might encourage the child to share personal stories, mostly related to school or favourite shows. A nurse needs to have the physical comfort of the child as the top priority. The main reason why a child is afraid to visit the hospital is physical pain. If a nurse is successful in making the child physically comfortable, there are no issues in treating her(Merz et al. 2016). When a child is being treated at a hospital, no particular solution might suffice. Depending on the experience of the patient at hospitals and the age of the child, strategies are to be laid out. As stated earlier, the level of stress and anxiety of the parents and family members have a profound impact on the anxiety level of the child. The family members are therefore to be helped out through their feelings (Ullrich et al. 2017). The four dimensions of family support include the provision of information about the treatment plan for the child and supportive communication; parental support that is based on enhancing parental role; support on the emotional front that enables successful coping with emotional responses; caregiving support that improves quality of care provided (Ball et al. 2016). Since the family is the continuing provider of child care, they are to be encouraged to actively participate in the care planning process. Family participation reliefs them from stress and anxiety. Viewing them as vital members ensure that patin recovery is fast. In addition, the family is to be educated about the developmental stage in which the child is at present. This information wou ld be crucial for them to provide input regarding how care can be of optimal quality(Hughes and Lyte 2015). In conclusion it can be stated that for a nurse to care for a child within a clinical setting it is imperitive that the perceptions of the child regarding the care unit is well understood. This facilitates the care delivery process as a comprehensive care approach is put foward in this case. The impact of hospitalisation is far reaching for both the child and the family members.It is crucial that a nurse addresses the concerns of the child as well as those of the family members as both are equally important for achieveing best outcomes. References Ball, J. and Bindler, R.M., 2008.Pediatric nursing: Caring for children. Prentice Hall. pp. 341-368. Ball, J.W., Bindler, R.C. and Cowen, K.J., 2013.Child health nursing. Prentice Hall. pp. 175-205. Ball, J.W., Bindler, R.C., Cowen, K. and Shaw, M.R., 2016.Principles of pediatric nursing: Caring for children. Pearson. pp. 349-372. Barrouillet, P., 2015. Theories of cognitive development: From Piaget to today. pp. 223-256. Fraser, J., Waters, D., Forster, E. and Brown, N., 2017.Paediatric Nursing in Australia: Principles for Practice. Cambridge University Press.pp. 436-489. Frye, D., 2014.Children's theories of mind: Mental states and social understanding. Psychology Press. p. 215-256. Hockenberry, M.J., Wilson, D. and Rodgers, C.C., 2016.Wong's Essentials of Pediatric Nursing-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 676-677. Hopia, H., Tomlinson, P.S., Paavilainen, E. and stedt?Kurki, P., 2005. Child in hospital: family experiences and expectations of how nurses can promote family health.Journal of clinical nursing,14(2), pp.212-222. John Wiley Sons. United States. Hughes, J. and Lyte, G. eds., 2015. Developing nursing practice with children and young people. John Wiley Sons. p. 56-59. Khin Hla, T., Hegarty, M., Russell, P., Drake?Brockman, T.F., Ramgolam, A. and Ungern?Sternberg, B.S., 2014. Perception of pediatric pain: a comparison of postoperative pain assessments between child, parent, nurse, and independent observer.Pediatric Anesthesia,John Wiley Sons. United States. 24(11), pp.1127-1131. Merz, E.C., Landry, S.H., Johnson, U.Y., Williams, J.M. and Jung, K., 2016. Effects of a responsivenessfocused intervention in family child care homes on childrens executive function.Early childhood research quarterly,Elsevier. United States. 34, pp.128-139. Rindstedt, C., 2013. Pain and nurses' emotion work in a paediatric clinic: Treatment procedures and nurse-child alignments.Communication medicine, Equinox.Denmark. 10(1), p.51. Ullrich, C.K., Rodday, A.M., Bingen, K.M., Kupst, M.J., Patel, S.K., Syrjala, K.L., Harris, L.L., Recklitis, C.J., Chang, G., Guinan, E.C. and Terrin, N., 2017. Three sides to a story: Child, parent, and nurse perspectives on the child's experience during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.Cancer. John Wiley Sons. United States pp. 31593166. van der Geest, I.M., Darlington, A.S.E., Streng, I.C., Michiels, E.M., Pieters, R. and van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M.M., 2014. Parents' experiences of pediatric palliative care and the impact on long-term parental grief.Journal of pain and symptom management,Elsevier. United States. 47(6), pp.1043-1053. Wilson, D. and Hockenberry, M.J., 2014.Wong's Clinical Manual of Pediatric Nursing-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. p.78-109.